Separation of Concerns

Separation of Concerns in Aspect Oriented Software Engineering

Aimed at supporting development of complex systems, software architecture is shifting from functionality to structure. Patterns describe pre-defined design structures, which can serve as building blocks to compose the architecture of a software system. They capture existing, well-proven design experience. Not only the functional but also the non-functional aspects of software design are addressed. Software architecture, a topic of steadily growing importance within the field of software engineering, proposes a shift in emphasis from functionality to structure. Its goal is to support the development and maintenance of complex, large-scale software systems. These systems may exist in many variants and evolve over their lifespan.

To achieve this goal, software architecture goes beyond the scope of "classical" software design in which the structure of a software system is mainly defined by a proper functional decomposition of its primary subject matter. Software architecture, however, explicitly considers both the functional and the non-functional aspects of software systems. Examples for non-functional aspects are reusability, changeability, testability, efficiency, and reliability. In addition, not only the components of a software system are of importance for the quality of its structure, but also the manifold relationships that exist between them – for example, how the components interact with each other.

To address these aspects and to take advantage of the benefits of software architecture, it is necessary to base the construction of specific architectures for software systems on well-defined methods and techniques. Such methods and techniques must:

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* Provide a systematic way for finding the appropriate structure for a software system being under development.
* Support the development of very specific structures with defined functional and non-functional properties. For instance, it must be possible to construct a software architecture that supports a flexible distribution of its components in a computer network.
* Guide the implementation of a given software architecture to avoid an architectural drift, which means the difference between the specified software architecture and its actual implementation.
Experienced software architects dispose of such methods and techniques. They do not necessarily have them in written form, but in their heads. The intention of a software architecture method described in a paper or book is to help a novice to act almost like an expert after a short apprenticeship without gaining years of experience of his own.

Therefore, a method should comprise as much of an expert's knowledge as possible. However, what is the ability of an expert in software architecture? He or she designs "good" software for a specific task in a reasonable amount of time; good is defined in terms of the desired non-functional properties of the system.

But what kind of knowledge makes someone an expert in software architecture? Certainly he must have some general principles, steps, and techniques. But these are not enough to support the design of architectures for specific tasks. For example, they do not tell how to create a very specific architecture – for instance, pipes and filters architecture or how to solve particular design issues under given constraints, for example, support for changeability. An expert remembers the problems he already solved and how he solved them. Confronted with a new problem, he often recalls a similar one and reuses the old solution. These problem/solution pairs tend to fall into families of similar problems and solutions with each family exhibiting a pattern in both the problems and the solutions.


College students across the nation are carrying load more heavier than their books, a crushing load of credit card debt that has coerced an increasing number of young adults into bankruptcy. Most student cards come with starting credit lines nibble from $500 to $1,000. In a latest inspection, interest rates on student credit cards range from 10 percent to 19.8 percent. Many college students come to school as financial illiterates and they're being offered a lot of credit, and they don't know what to do with it.

The trick is to comprehend how plastic cards works so you can use it to your benefit and not get stung by excessive fees and interest rates. While studies say unemployed and underemployed students shoulder an average $2,700 in debt, credit card companies keep luring them with offers. And students keep snapping them up. It's not surprising that college-age students were filing bankruptcy at record rates through last year, a tenfold increase in just five years even while the overall rates were going down.

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At the same time debt forces some students to delay their education, multiplying their costs. What is surprising to many is that universities are joining in the game, gaining when their alumni associations take a cut of school-logo credit cards marketed to students. It's clear the universities are taking the same course they have with every other social ill, and that's to anticipate for the litigation and then change. Too many parents don't talk to their children on the issue of money. The best thing that parents can do is to talk to your children about intelligently handling debt before they head off to campus. The children should agree to the rules and beware of the pitfalls of improper use of credit cards.


The anorexic adolescent is normally a competitive youngster often involved a great deal in sports. The disorder is likely to start in early adolescence although it may take place in the prepubertal age. The anorexic has noticeable obsessive personality characteristics. Someone significant to them telling them that they are getting fat normally instigates the beginning of dieting. Media influences also play a major role.

Anorexia prevails in developed, industrial countries. It is enormously uncommon in those countries that are not as much developed. The sociological approach emphasizes that it is cultural ideals that kick off eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. Anorexics are susceptible to society's endorsement and uphold a view that it is superior to be thin in a society that is fanatical about weight. Therefore, self-worth is linked with an attractive slim appearance, with a consequential weakness to eating disorders. Western culture has a mania with the human body and connects thinness to beauty, success and happiness. We are trained to value definite standards and are attacked by metaphors of a romanticized thin female body through magazines, films, and television etc.

The Socio-cultural viewpoint cannot completely make clear the loss of appetite and malnourishment that some people go through and the complexity of recovery even in the eager patient. Anorexia has been linked with troubles in rearing, sexual abuse, family dysfunction, and low self-esteem, dominating mothers, remote fathers and sons. The dilemma has been that studies principally family studies commonly address the known patient population in which child parent relationships are by now stressed and frantic mothers worried about their child's malnourishment may indeed endeavor to exercise substantial power. The anorexic patient puts a brutal tension on the family and family life is inclined to orbit around the patients eating habits, arguments around foods. It is at the climax of this cycle that the patient turns up for cure.

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Anorexic patients have been portrayed as characteristically having low self-esteem, and thoughts of insufficiency. They are afraid of sexual maturation, exhibit subservient behavior, and have trouble in handling pressure. The anorexic is usually portrayed as having troubles coming out of the family umbrella and having a separate identity. With the intense barrage of media advocating thinness it is hard to protect the youth from the clutches of anorexia. Thin is in and people are judged by their physical appearances in our fast moving, superficial world. So all your skills and abilities are also considered as part and parcel of your personality and physical appearance plays a major role in this.

The situation has reached that deplorable level where there are actual groups advocating anorexia. It is becoming a fashion statement and sometimes the media hype makes it even more fashionable. Like most issues since this is addressed in a major way, youngsters are beginning to take it as a fashion movement and are trying to join in. There are links on the net that are pro anorexia and it is shocking to read the statements made by youngsters There are practices of never-ending fasts and throwing up after every meal. IT is indeed lamentable to see technology being used in such a negative manner. There is a dire need for a shift in the way that society thinks.

Pharmaceutical Drug Testing On Animals

Term Paper Writing on Pharmaceutical Drug Testing On Animals

This article will help you in writing a term paper on pharmaceutical drug testing on animals. Different companies in the pharmaceutical industry are using animals for drug testing. This testing process is basically a part of medical science research. In drug testing process, animals are being injected with a sample of a certain drug.

With this process, scientists identify effects of that drug on animal and based on those effects, it is identified that either that drug is successful or not.

There are many side effects of testing pharmaceutical drug on animals. Animal’s life is endangered and many animals die when tested with a drug. The risk that endangered species will be wiped off   from this earth also increases. Some people believe that benefits of pharmaceutical drug testing animal are more important than its side effects. It is believed that life of human beings is more precious than those of animals therefore drug testing animals should not be discouraged.

Following guidelines have been provided for term paper writing on pharmaceutical drug testing on animals.

Start your term paper writing on pharmaceuticals drug testing on animals with an introduction. Introduction will cover an overview of animal testing. Include a brief history. You will give an idea about when animal testing started. Mention experiments that were being conducted for drug testing. Write down the purpose and results of experiments conducted.

After formulating an introduction, write down pros and cons of pharmaceutical drug testing on animals. Avoid making biased statements about advantages or disadvantages of drug testing. Include points from both the both sides. Develop awareness in your audience about both the benefits of drug testing on animals and its side effects.

Highlight ethical issues being involved in pharmaceutical drug testing on animals. Discuss those laws that have been formed for regulation of drug testing process.

Include figures and numbers in your research that will demonstrate number of animals who have suffered from experiments of drug testing.

Discuss importance of animal testing with respect to treatment of various diseases. Use facts to support your research. Facts will demonstrate that how drug testing experiments and research has been successful in treating many diseases.

Present findings of your research explicitly. In the end make a conclusion. Specify on the basis of information being presented in research paper that either medical science should continue with drug testing on animals or not. Give recommendations.

The Healthcare Industry

Term Paper Tips on The Healthcare Industry

Healthcare industry is one of the important industries which are associated with taking care of patients all around the world. Term paper tips on healthcare industry can be written with the right information about the subject. You will write down about this particular industry, what it is about, how it works and on what platforms does it have to carry out its work.

You will first explain that the healthcare industry helps patients who need treatment due to any injury or sickness caused by various reasons. To spread its work and help people overcome incidents and get treated healthcare professionals work at various places. Healthcare industry includes equipment and services related to dealing with healthcare issues.

You will highlight the necessary points throughout your term paper that companies deal with providing medical equipments to different health centers, hospitals and nursing homes. Another industry which is associated with having healthcare business is pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and scientific service centers.

These healthcare industries do not only work for themselves but also provide healthcare professionals to private hospitals for the betterment of patients. The staff includes nurses and healthcare workers who stay busy in providing full care to the patients. It is a challenging job for those who are related to this field and have to work throughout day and night taking care of the patients.

For term paper tips on the healthcare industry you have to give details about healthcare providers and how they work. You will also define that healthcare can be face-to-face or can be given through technology i.e. phone, internet and other tools of communication. Healthcare industry also provides employment opportunities to those who are associated with it and to those from other sectors.

In the present era healthcare industry is likely to grow with its demand around the world. The other reason of its growth is demand in the market of products. Also there is a need of professionals in organizations, hospitals, healthcare centers, and offices of physicians, offices of health practitioners and in other ambulatory services.

Term paper tips on the healthcare industry will help the readers know about this particular and essential industry of the society. It will also help others know what services are related to healthcare and how it is making a difference in treating people. Hence, you will write down points which will be informative and discuss employment rate after taking healthcare as a field of study.

The Role Church Plays in The Community

Term Paper on The Role Church Plays in The Community

The proposal in your hands attempts to present a case for the conduction of a research study on the two fronts. The general aspect coverage of the paper is the role of the Church in the promotion and development of a community. On the particular aspect the role played by the Christian Cultural Center located in Brooklyn, New York would be analyzed.

This would be an exploratory as well as the normative study. The normative side would attempt to dig through the literature and the secondary sources of the role of Church, as it should be in the cultural development of a community. The exploratory side of the study would particularly focus on the role played by the Christian Cultural Center under the guidelines obtained through the normative study of the secondary sources.

The Church works for the emergence of a society where the ethical Gospel values are dominant. The politically and economically powerful and motivated world addresses our future with only one vision, a society with expanding production, greater competitiveness, deepening divisions and wider gaps between rich and poor. The power as seen by the leaders is a tool for manipulating future of the masses. This worldly view call those people important who facilitate the more efficient running of the production process resulting in increased GDP and the subsequent standards of living. In reality the majorities have no say in the shaping of such a society and do not participate in the decision-making processes to any great extent. It is the true meaning of life that results in the care and respect for human rights, human dignity, human development and the environment. A society is just when it adopts the suggestions by the Biblical understanding.

The role of Church has always been of significance throughout the history. It was one of the two biggest powers in the medieval historical era that stood side by side with the Empires and the Kingdoms. The Pope was as powerful as the King of the past. The roots of the role of Church in the development of community cannot be segregated from the Church itself. The two are integrated parts of a whole. Church has always been encouraging social participation and proclaimed betterment. Order quality term papers at our site

The Process of Planning in Management

Term Paper on The Process of Planning in Management

This is a pretty broad topic and you can discuss a number of things in your term paper on the process of planning in management. First write a few lines of introduction regarding what management is and then come to the need for planning in management in your term paper on the process of planning in management.

What is management? How is management developed? The answer is quite simple actually. Management development is a skill, an effort that one has to make him or herself to enhance the learner’s capacity to take on various activities which include planning, leading, coordinating large scale resources, organizing staff and dividing tasks etc.

Make your research paper topics on the process of planning in management compelling for the reader because a highly directed reader can get a lot of information and good guidelines. Don’t write your term paper on the process of planning in management for the hell of it.

Then in the later stage of your term paper on the process of planning in management come to the ‘planning’ part. Define what planning is and what some of the benefits of planning ahead are and what management planning is.  Well planning basically means looking ahead and taking a systematic step towards one’s goals and the various courses of action that follows.  Planning defines how and when to perform a specific job or task.

There is an expression “Well plan is half done” it is rightly said. And therefore in planning various things have to be considered things regarding physical and human resources of a particular organization to get optimal cooperation from staff.

According to Urwick, “Planning is a mental predisposition to do things in orderly way, to think before acting and to act in the light of facts rather than guesses”. Planning is deciding best alternative among others to perform different managerial functions in order to achieve predetermined goals.

Planning facilitates management by objectives.

Mention the benefits of planning in your term paper on the process of planning in management. Discuss that good planning actually begins with a person’s determination of various objectives. It allows for any objective to appear clear and more specific. Good planning helps in getting the entire focus of employees on several tasks.

In conclusion to your term paper on the process of planning in management give a few points on the benefit of planning in a person’s life.

The Interpretation of Freuds Theory of Dreams

Term Paper on The Interpretation of Freuds Theory of Dreams

Sigmund Freud has made dreams a subject of scientific research, which was done on the basis of psychoanalysis. The term paper on the interpretation of Freud’s theory of dreams can be written with the help of necessary information. This paper will assist you through the process and define steps of writing a term paper correctly.

You need to follow each and every step while writing.

You will start off with reading books and searching for the appropriate material. Then pen down the points which will support your statement. These points will later be written as headings in the body of paper. Each heading has to be descriptive and should have information related to the topic. Make an outline and add points in that term paper along with your statement.

Next step is to write an introduction which will give you a brief picture of the information you will add. Further, start writing the body of paper in which you will tell what analysis Freud did related to dreams and how these dreams are connected to the fears and wishes of an individual.

He called dreams as ‘royal road’ to understand the human consciousness. Keep in mind that your term paper on the interpretation of Freud’s theory of dreams should be concise and informative.

As Freud interprets dreams, he says it is a mere fulfillment of wishes. Those wishes can be suppressed or repressed and he further talks about dream symbolism. According to Freud, dreams are not as they appear; you have to interpret them deeply to get the meaning out. Give detail of this theory as the interpretation of dreams is one of the best work done by Sigmund Freud.

You will note down references of data that you will collect during research. Make cards and note down citations along with material, it would be easy for you to organize your research in the end. Finally give examples of the patients which Freud had talks with during psychoanalysis.

You will write a draft first and recheck to avoid mistakes. Term paper on the interpretation of Freud’s theory of dreams should have authentic and accurate material.

You will stay to the point while writing and make sure that the information you add would sustain reader’s interest throughout. Finally end your term paper with a conclusion which will be the gist of your research. It will help the reader know your opinion on topic you have researched.

The Early Christianity Spread to Britain

Term Paper on The Early Christianity Spread to Britain

The spread of Christianity rarely followed a smooth path. Depending on the locality, many different sects were developed by the people. Nowhere is this more evident than in Britain, which in five centuries has transformed itself from pagan worship, to leading Christians all around the world.

In your term paper on the early Christianity spread to Britain, research and write about influences, and the division amongst Christians, including controversies before the Christians became stable and established. Christianity started to spread by the mid-second century, but did not immediately gain recognition or prominence.

Include in your term paper on the early Christianity spread to Britain, the fact that because Christians refused to acknowledge or bow down before Roman Gods, who ruled Britain, the Christians were persecuted. However, the expansion of the Roman Empire greatly facilitated Christian missionaries who travelled the well paved roads preaching and spreading Christianity.

Next in your term paper on the early Christianity spread to Britain, give details of the decline of the  Roman Empire, and the strengthening of the Christian structure. Christianity now spread rapidly amongst the elite and the educated, as they thought that Christ offered a better relationship and religion than that of Roman Gods.

The Christian Bishops assumed leadership authority after being selected by the clergy, and being anointed to their position. In your term paper on the early Christianity spread to Britain explain how Bishops became absolutely essential to expansion as Christianity continued to prosper and expand, and the Bishops took over administrative duties within the growing communities, and these communities were the size of a Roman City-state.

The power of Bishops continued to grow by the end of the fourth century, to the extent that the Church started to exercise authority over the state in decisions concerning religion and moral values. Later, the legitimacy of Bishops was ascertained on whether they were descendants of some Apostle, as these Bishops were assumed to have inherited their authority direct from the Apostles, leading to the establishment of Sees, which was described as a Bishop of a Higher Order.

In conclusion to your research paper topics on the early Christianity spread to Britain, elaborate that although Christianity spread throughout the Empire, different interpretation of the scripture created conflicts, to the point where a priest in Alexandria, challenged the divinity of Jesus Christ. Such conflicts were resolved and were instrumental in consolidating Christianity.

The issue that spurred the spread of Christianity in Britain was monasticism which resulted in a mass conversion to Christianity in the third century. Monasticism became popular because the Christians wanted to distance themselves from the now very wealthy and corrupt clergy, and Monks devoted their lives to piety and self denial, as they perceived that this was what God wanted of Christians.

The Benefits And Advantages of Free Trade

Term Paper on The Benefits And Advantages of Free Trade

Free trade is described as a trade policy by which businesses can free flow their goods and services between nations without any intervention or interference from the governments. A term paper on the benefits and advantages of free trade would require students to explain how adopting a free trade system would set their economy at an advantage from the rest of the countries, or simultaneously with other nations.

You should begin your term paper by explaining how the notion of free trade was first introduced through David Ricardo’s Theory of Comparative Advantage. You need to enlighten how trading partners gain mutual benefit when they engage in free trade after producing the product in which they have a lower opportunity cost. In other words, they produce the product in which they have a comparative advantage.

Another important aspect of your term paper on the benefits and advantages of free trade would include the basic construction of a free trade market. You will explain how free trade markets are free from artificial prices and false supply and demand. To make the reader understand the free trade model, you should provide features of an interventionist trade economy, which is governed by protectionist measures such as, taxes, subsidies, tariffs, trade barriers and many others.

It is contended that free trade leads to a superior market and trade economy. Here are a few benefits and advantages of free that you can add in your term paper on the benefits and advantages of free trade.

1.       You should explain how countries advantage their position through comparative advantage and low opportunity costs. Then you need to highlight that when countries produce goods that they have the lowest opportunity cost in, they can gain on the economies of scale and produce goods at a much lower prices than other countries.

2.       Explain how free flow of goods and services between countries would affect demand. As such competition from lower priced products will challenge domestic companies to reduce costs through improving efficiency. Explain how competitive market will thwart monopolies.

3.       Free trade creates an environment of classic demand and supply. Therefore the growth in economic wellbeing of a nation due to free trade will truly reflect the growth of a country. This growth is translated in terms of improved and secure jobs, better purchasing power and improved standard of living etc.

Other benefits and advantages of free trade include effective use of raw materials, increased choice of products, and peace and tranquility among world nations. You should research and provide examples to include in your term paper on the benefits and advantages of free trade. Also give an analysis of your country’s position if they adopt a free trade regime.